ISSN: 1812-237X

Volume 12, Issue 1

Volume 12, Issue 1, Spring 2015, Page 1-70


Population biology of the Hilsa Shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) during migration to Shatt Al-arab River and southern Al-Hammar marsh, Basra-Iraq

Amal A. Mahdi; Falah M. Mutlak; Mustafa A. Al-Mukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 1-16

Hilsa Shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) is one of the most important commercial fish species in Iraq and the region. Fish samples were collected during March 2013-April 2014 from Shatt Al-arab Estuary in Al-FAW city, Abu al-Khasib city, Sinbad Island and south Al-Hammar marsh. The first individuals were caught during February with length ranging 30.5-35.4cm in the estuary and the Shatt al-Arab. Monthly changes were found in mean fish length. The estuary region showed a marked increase in the average length of fish during June and November. The age composition was 0-V+ year. Length-Weight relationships were y=0.0086x3.067 for females, y=0.0119x2.947 for males, y=0.0141x2.833 for juveniles, y=0.0098x3.01 for male and female and y=0.0093x3.0304 for the overall population. The average relative condition factor (Kn) for female was 1.07 (± 0.12) ranging from 0.61-1.04. For males it reached 1.09 (± 0.125) ranging between 0.72-1.47. For young the mean was 1.21 (± 0.149) ranging from 0.66 to 1.73. The proportional size distribution showed that stock length was 13 cm, whereas the calculated specified lengths of Hilsa shad were 23, 29, 35 and 44 cm for quality, preferred memorable and trophy lengths respectively. The value of PSD Hilsa shad population was 60.7, which represents a balanced population consists a large proportion of breeding individuals. However, the decline in other specified lengths showed that Hilsa shad population was mostly medium-sized fishes, with RSD-T value of 3.8.

Study Proportions and Chemical Composition of red and white muscles of Tilapia Zillii and Acanthopagrus latus

Y.W. Oda

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 17-34

The present study deals with two types of teleost; Tilapia zillii (Cichlidae), and Acanthopagrus latus (Sparidae), to study some aspects with relation to the fish activity such as the proportion of red and white muscle fibers, and estimation of the chemical content (protein, lipid, moisture, ash) in different regions of fish studied. The results showed that the red muscles less than the white muscles in (R1, R2) in studied fish, The red muscles ranged between (5.01–10.5%) and (4.67–9.64%) in T. zillii and A. latus respectively, while the proportion of white muscles were ranged between (94.98–88.49%) and (95.32–90.35%) in T. zillii and A. latus respectively beside to increasing of red muscles towards of the posterior region (caudal peduncle), therefore these fish are put in the intermediate activity. The results which related to chemical content in muscles including (protein, lipid, moisture, ash) in (R1, R2) from fish body, showed that the proportion of protein were ranged (17.97–19.05%) and (16.89–17.46%) in T. zillii and A. latus respectively, while the proportion of lipid were ranged between (1.54–2.08%) and (3.08–3.13%) in fish studied, therefore T. zillii put in non-lipid fishes or flesh fishes, while A. latus put in intermediate lipid fishes.

Extraction Of Collagen From Fish Orientai Sole Brachirus orientalis Skin And Studying Of Some Chemical Charactristics And Amino Acid Composition

Mohammed Zyarah Eskander; H.J.AL-Mossawi; Aum-El-Basher

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 35-46

This study includes the extraction of acid soluble collagen (Acetic acid 0.5 M) from fish Oriental sole skin . After the removal of fat and non-collagenous proteins and dialyzed against distilled water, some the chemical properties were studied, that includes chemical composition and the percentage of yield were 12.15 % on the basis of wet weight. According to the electrophoretic patterns, the collagen consisted of two different chains (α1 and α 2), were characterized to be type I, β chain components as well as the observed was larger molecular weight , When estimating amino acid collagen observed that there is variation in the percentage of amino acid major such as glycine , proline , hydroxyproline and hydroxy lysine, When measuring the absorption spectrum of ultraviolet (UV) there was a single peak absorption at 232 nm for collagen fish skin, FTIR showed regions of amides A, B, I, II and III were 3408.57, 2934.89, 1651.73, 1540.85 and 1243.38 cm-1 respectively.

Hydrological changes in the lower part of Mesopotamian Basin

Hassan K. H. AL-Mahmood

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 47-70

This study was examined the hydrological changes in the water ways in Southern part of lower Mesopotamian catchment area (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers and their branches in Amarah, Nasiriya and Basra ) and the main tributaries of the Shatt al-Arab River (Swaib, Garmat Ali and Karun), and the significant changes in the overall hydrological conditions of water discharge and water quality. Water discharge and water samples were collected quarterly for four sites during 2011, the laboratory analysis were performed to determine physical and chemical characteristics at these sites.
Results shows that the quarterly water discharge rate in Tigris River is seasonal 41.05 m3/s at Qalaat saleh, Euphrates River at Chebayish 11.65 m3/s, Shatt Al-Arab River in Qurna 39.65m3/sec, that the Garmat Ali to cause the loss of an average of 20.1 m 3/sec from Shatt al-Arab water into to Hor Alhammar, during a seasonal fluctuation between summer and winter, causes water relapsing during the winter water Contamination of the central part of the Shatt al-Arab. Clear water shortage reflected on water quality in Southern Iraqi Rivers and their branches. While water salinity is ranging between 1.31-1.42 g/l in Tigris River, 3.46-5.15 g/l in Euphrates River, 2.00-2.29 g/l in Garmat Ali River, 1.00 -1.98 gm/l in Ezz River and 1.59-1.83 g/l in Shatt al-Arab River. This study shows that the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers suffer of large water scarcity and lack of supply from Swaib and Garmat Ali Rivers to the Shatt al-Arab, as well as stop the flow of Karun River to the Shatt al-Arab and wasting a large portion of water from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers to restore some parts of Southern Iraqi marshes. the contribution of the Euphrates River in the salinity of the Shatt al-Arab 50% during the winter, Although the total discharge does not exceed 25%, and the contribution of the Garmat Ali 30% and 20% of the Tigris River, while the effect of the salt of the Tigris River 100 % during the summer. The study concludes that the hydrological situation in the study area is continuous deterioration due to absence of any instant or far-reaching strategies to handle this deterioration, which calls for the intensification of future studies in various disciplines related to water resources management.