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Publisher: Marine Science Centre, University of Basrah. Founded: 2004 ; ISSN: 1812237X. Language: English and Arabic. Issues: Two per annum. Number of articles: Approximately five per issue. Abbreviated Title:Iraqi J. of Aquacult. Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture published since 2004 by Marine Science Center, University of Basra, which established from 1978 . It is a periodic peer reviewed scientific journal published biannually (ISNN: 1812237X) specialized in Aquaculture, Fisheries and related subjects. The publication serves as a medium for original papers based principally upon the researches...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  malik54ha@yahoo.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Malik Hassan Ali

ISSN: 1812-237X

Propagation of water hyssop ( Bacopa monnieri L.) in vitro

Haleemah J. Al-Aradi; Ansam M. S; Khaun A. M; Jihad M. Al-Zewar

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

The study aimed to examine the ability of propagation of water hyssop Bacopa monnieri L. in vitro. To induce callus, two auxin , NAA and 2,4-D are used. They showed the highest percentage of 93% callus induction when 1.5 mg .l -1 was used for both. The induced callus was distinguished by its white compact color containing a lot of nodes. After that another treatment with 3 mg . l -1 2,4-D was conducted to score 85% , the callus was compact yellow. The treatment by 3 mg/l -1 NAA scored 53%. The callus was yellow and soft, where as the callus was not induced by hormones free treatment. The effect of cytokines on the formation of vegetative buds was also examined in this study. The results showed that the interaction between treatment by (0.5 mg .l -1) of BA and (0.5 mg.l -1) KN was significantly increased in the number of the vegetative buds; the number was 40 vegetative buds. Then another treatment followed (0.5 mg . l -1) BA, the interaction of (0.5 mg.l -1) BA, KN and NAA and (0.5 mg. l -1) of KN to form (14.7, 10.3, 10.0) vegetative buds respectively. The control treatment scored 2.5 vegetative buds to show a significant increase in the length of the vegetative buds (15.33 cm) followed by the treatment of the interaction between (0.5 mg .l -1) BA and KN to score (13.00 cm) and the treatment of (0.5 mg.l -1) BA , (8.33 cm). The interaction between (0.5 mg. l-1) of BA, KN and NAA, (6.67 cm). The length of the vegetative buds was (4.67 cm) in the treatment by (0.5 mg.l -1) KN. The plants were acclimatized then transformed into the water field successfully.

The effect of hormone type and amount of dose on gonadotropin hormones levels in blood plasma of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) during artificial spawning processes

M. Al Zaidy; Faleh; Sajed S. Al-Noor; Basem M. Jasim

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 13-28

The study included the utilization of three types of hormones, i.e. LHRH-A2 with dosages of 10, 20 or 30 µg / kg, a mixture of LHRH-A2 with dosages of 10, 20, and 30 µg / kg with Domperidone (DOM) at 5 mg / kg and carp pituitary gland extract (CPE) at 3 and 4 mg / kg, in order to study the effect of hormone type and used dosage on the level of gonadotropins secreted from the pituitary gland of the common carp Cyprinus carpio L. females during the artificial fertilization. Concentrations of GTHs (FSH and LH) were measured using ELISA kit on blood samples collected from fish caudal peduncle after 2, 6 and 12 hours of injection with LHRH-A2 and hormone mixture or 2, 6 and 8 hours for fish treated with CPE .Results showed that GTHs levels were low in fish treated with LHRH-A2 for all the utilized dosages LH (4.66 ± 1.27 mIU / mL) or LHRH-A2+ DOM LH (5.22 ± 0.77 mIU / mL). In contrast, GTHs levels in fish treated with CPE at 3 and 4 mg / kg were higher and levels of FSH and LH were higher with 4 mg / kg LH (34.51 ±12.59 mIU/mL) than it with 3 mg / kg,

Semi artificial breeding of white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

Abdul-Hussein H.G; Sajed S. Al-Noor; Malik H. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 47-60

In this study the breeding of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was achieved by two methods; the first was stock breeding to estimate total number of eggs, and the second was individual breeding to recognize the relationship between weight and eggs number. The environmental factors in the hatchery were measured, the averages of water temperature and salinity were recorded to be 31 º C and 32 ppt., respectively, while the dissolved oxygen and pH were 7.5 mg/ l and 8.2 respectively. The results of stock breeding showed that total number of eggs (fecundity) and nauplii produced from 20 ablated females with weight of 35.5 + 3.1 g were 3000000 eggs per spawning and about 2 400000 nauplii respectively. Fertilization rate and hatching rates were 86.5 %, and 78.7 % respectively. The results of individual breeding showed that maximum number of eggs (164000 eggs / female) was achieved in these females that weight 42.0 g, while the minimum were 95000 eggs / female for female weighted 32.5 g. Maximum fertilization rate was 95.2 % in those females with lower weight, while the minimum fertility rate was 77.5 % in those with higher weight.

Fisheries and stock assessment of shilig, Leuciscus vorax Heckel, 1843 in East Hammar marsh, Southern Iraq

Falah M. Mutlak; A. R. M. Mohamed; S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 29-46

The fisheries and stock assessment of shilig Leuciscus vorax (Aspius vorax) the in East Hammar marsh, which is the first study to assess this species in southern Iraq. A total of 5751 specimens was collected by several fishing gears for a period of January in 2009 until May in 2010. Total lengths of L. vorax were ranged from 3.7 to 55.6 cm was as total length. The species constituted 6.4% from the total catch by seine net and the catch rate ranged from 0.84 kg/hr in May 2009 to 3.33 kg/hr in January 2010 and rate 2.01 kg/hr. The length-weight relationship obtained was W= 0.0068 x L3.0425. The fish stock was assessed by lengths, frequency technique using FiSAT program. Growth, mortality parameters and exploitation rate estimated were: L∞= 65.1 cm, K= 0.22, Z= 0.96, M= 0.5, F= 0.46, E= 0.48, E0.1= 0.411 and Emax= 0.52. Recruitment pattern of the species exhibited single pulse modal contributed 45% of the total recruits for the period April-September with a peak during June-August. The mature individuals of L. vorax were exposed to fishing before the spawning season in Eastern Al-Hammar marsh, because the value Lc (18.3 cm) is lower than Lm (21.5 cm). Therefore, this study suggests increasing the mesh size and regulating the fishing effort.

Parasitic Protozoans infecting free - living fishes of lake of 16 Tishreen Dam, Lattakia, Syria

Amal I . Dayoub; H. M. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 141-154

The study included 144 fishes in Lake of 16 Tishreen Dam for detecting the infection with parasitic Protozoans, and determine the distribution rate. Fishes were collected randomly once a month, during the period from 22/12/2011 until 22/12/2012.
Collected fishes samples were belonged to the following species: Cyprinus carpio L., Varicorhinus damascinus, Garra rufa, Tilapia zillii, and Liza abu. T. zillii was the most prevalent in the lake of 16 Tishreen Dam.
The study has shown presence of three species of parasitic Protozoans on the Skin, Fins and Gills continuously. Trichodina sp. was the most distributed one with a rate of (34.03%) then Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (15.97 %) then Chilodonella cyprini ( 2.78 %).
The infection rate of T. zillii with parasitic Protozoans was the highest 54.46 %, Trichodina sp. was 42.57 % ( in Summer 62.26 %), and C. cyprini 3.96 %,( in Summer 7.55 %) whereby the infection rate with I. multifiliis was 19.80 %( in Autumn 33.33 %).

Effect of Temperature and Salinity on Survival and Growth of Artemia franciscana from Basrah, Iraq.

Malik Hassan Ali; Salman D. Salman; Dawood S. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 101-116

Laboratory experiments were carried out to express the effects of temperature, salinity and the combined effects of temperature–salinity on survival, growth and biomass of Artemia franciscana at 5 temperatures: 10, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC and 5 salinities: 35, 55, 75, 95 and 115 ‰. Temperature of 20 ºC and salinity of 55 ‰ showed best survivals (93 %), biomass (122.87 mg DW/L) and high growth (4.94 mm), whereas at 30 ºC and salinity of 95 ‰, the least survivals (21 %) was attained. However, the highest average growth was 6.1 mm attained at 30 ºC and 115 ‰, and the lowest growth was 1.49 mm at 10 ºC and 95 ‰, meanwhile, the lowest average biomass was 3.79 mg DW/L at 10 ºC and 115 ‰. Apparently, temperature of 20 ºC and salinity of 55 ‰ is the best combination for the local strain of A. franciscana from Basrah and is recommended for mass culture of this strain.

Experimental hatchery designed for the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in Marine science center, Basrah, Iraq

Amina A. Hashim; Malik Hassan Ali; Tariq H. Y. Al-Maliky

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 45-58

This study includes an experimental hatchery design for the prawn Macrobrachium nipponense from the brackish water of Basrah region (Al-Mashab Marsh). This hatchery consist of five parts: maturation ponds (closed system), hatching of zoug jars, rearing of ponds to larva (nursery and concrete ponds), water tanks and food live of pond (fiberglass). The production capacity was 53,504-190,000 Zoea larvae, 32,355-99,560 Postlarvae. While production of the out ponds (cage two in mud and fiberglass ponds) were estimated between 4,347-24,098 larvae and 2,527-18,828 Postlarvae. Depending on results the total area of the earthen pond and the fiberglass tank, the potential production of Zoea larvae were estimated to be between 36,559-15,300,000 larvae, and between 21,248-11,954,400 Postlarvae. While the total production in all culture systems were 12,600,188-15,760,462 larvae, and between 9,753,349-12,197,630 Postlarvae.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Acanthopagrus latus Collected from Iraqi marine waters

H.T. Al-Saad; A.C. Al-Shammary; A. A. Hantoush; G. A. Al-Najare

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 125-138

Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, cupper, iron, manganese and nickel were determined in four organs (liver, gills, ovaries and muscles) of Acanthopagrus latus, which collected from Iraqi marine waters during the period between November 2010 and October 2011. Heavy metals have been determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The fish average weight was 61.2 g and the average length was 144 mm. Nickel showed the highest values in liver, gills and muscles during spring (201.19, 190.00 and 148.00 µg/gm dry weight), respectively. While cobalt showed the lower value (1.12 µg/gm dry weight) in the liver and cadmium showed its lower value (1.23 µg/gm dry weight) in the gills during winter. Muscles showed constant levels of heavy metals, it showed the lower values (not detected) during winter. Ovaries showed high levels for all heavy metals during spring, but its value still instable during the other seasons. This study showed that the concentration of heavy metals distributed in the organs was as follows: liver > gills > muscles > ovaries, while the heavy metals concentration had been distributed during the seasons as follow: winter > spring > autumn > summer.

The Effect of irrigation with fish pond waste water on quality and yield of Tomato under green house

Adeeb A. Saad; N. Sh. Solayman; Marah DALI

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 39-52

This study was carried out during the seasons of 2008_2009 to study effect of irrigation with fish culture effluent on quality and Lycopersicum esculentum (under green house) yield of Tomato.
The experiment consisted of four treatments:
Irrigation with freshwater. (control), irrigation with fish culture effluent, irrigation alternately with fish culture effluent twice and freshwater once ,irrigation alternately with fish culture effluent once and freshwater once.
The experiment was done according to the completely randomized block design with four replicates. Soil and water samples were collected and analyzed.
Results of the study showed: The irrigation in waste water fish ponds adds positive effect on quality and yield of Tomato under green house. This effect of water was on the irrigation with fishculture effluent increase the yield 17.82 Kg/m2 firstly followed by the treatment of irrigation alternately with fish culture effluent twice and freshwater once by yielding 15.47 Kg/m2. After that it was on irrigation alternately with fish culture effluent once and freshwater once by yielding 12.42 Kg/m2 comparing with-irrigation of freshwater. Which give lower yield 8.88 Kg/m2.

Parasitic Protozoans infecting free - living fishes of lake of 16 Tishreen Dam, Lattakia, Syria

Amal I . Dayoub; H. M. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 141-154

The study included 144 fishes in Lake of 16 Tishreen Dam for detecting the infection with parasitic Protozoans, and determine the distribution rate. Fishes were collected randomly once a month, during the period from 22/12/2011 until 22/12/2012.
Collected fishes samples were belonged to the following species: Cyprinus carpio L., Varicorhinus damascinus, Garra rufa, Tilapia zillii, and Liza abu. T. zillii was the most prevalent in the lake of 16 Tishreen Dam.
The study has shown presence of three species of parasitic Protozoans on the Skin, Fins and Gills continuously. Trichodina sp. was the most distributed one with a rate of (34.03%) then Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (15.97 %) then Chilodonella cyprini ( 2.78 %).
The infection rate of T. zillii with parasitic Protozoans was the highest 54.46 %, Trichodina sp. was 42.57 % ( in Summer 62.26 %), and C. cyprini 3.96 %,( in Summer 7.55 %) whereby the infection rate with I. multifiliis was 19.80 %( in Autumn 33.33 %).

Effect of Temperature and Salinity on Survival and Growth of Artemia franciscana from Basrah, Iraq.

Malik Hassan Ali; Salman D. Salman; Dawood S. Mohammed

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 12, Issue 2, Pages 101-116

Laboratory experiments were carried out to express the effects of temperature, salinity and the combined effects of temperature–salinity on survival, growth and biomass of Artemia franciscana at 5 temperatures: 10, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ºC and 5 salinities: 35, 55, 75, 95 and 115 ‰. Temperature of 20 ºC and salinity of 55 ‰ showed best survivals (93 %), biomass (122.87 mg DW/L) and high growth (4.94 mm), whereas at 30 ºC and salinity of 95 ‰, the least survivals (21 %) was attained. However, the highest average growth was 6.1 mm attained at 30 ºC and 115 ‰, and the lowest growth was 1.49 mm at 10 ºC and 95 ‰, meanwhile, the lowest average biomass was 3.79 mg DW/L at 10 ºC and 115 ‰. Apparently, temperature of 20 ºC and salinity of 55 ‰ is the best combination for the local strain of A. franciscana from Basrah and is recommended for mass culture of this strain.

THE USE OF LIVE FOOD IN REARING OF THE LARVAE OF GRASS CARP CTENOPHARYGODON IDELLA

Abdullhussein H. Gazi; Malik H. Ali; Saged S. Al-Noor

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 4, Issue 1, Pages 37-50

The larvae of grass carp Ctenophargodon idella were fed on three types of live food Brachionus calyciflorus, Artemia sp. and Daphnia magna. The study showed that live food is very important to achieve high growth and survival of fish larvae. The average weights of C. idella fed on B. calyciflorus were 118.12+3.0 mg / larvae and 29.48+0.8 mm / larvae respectively, and in case of Artemia sp. The rates were 103.13+1.5 mg/ larvae and 25.34+1.4 mm / larvae, while in the mixed food the rate were 122.80 + 1.8 mg / larvae and 30.08 + 1.1mm /larvae .The survival rate was better on B. calyciflorus treatment as it was 98.6 % ,while it was 98 % and 97% in case of mixed food and Artemia sp. Respectively.

DISTRIBUTION AND COMPOSITION OF ZOOPLANKTON IN EUPHRATES RIVER NEAR AL-MUS AIB POWER STATION

M.R. NASHAAT; A.A. AL-RUDAINY; A.A. AL-LAMI; A. G. RAHDI

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 1-20

Quantity and quality composition of Cladocera were studied throughout a period from July 2002 to March 2003. Three sites in Euphrates near Al-Mussaib power station were selected (S1, S2 and S3). The present study recorded 38 taxa of Cladocera, belonged to 15 genera , some of these were dominant as Alona , Ceriodaphnia and Daphnia. The species of Alona guttata, Chydorus gibbus and Scapholeberis kingi occurred at all sites throughout the study period . The highest mean values of bio-diversity (2.94) were recorded at S1 below the thermal effluent compared with other two sites. The present study showed variation in the composition of the community due to the effluent of Al-Mussaib power station in Euphrates river.

Fisheries and stock assessment of shilig, Leuciscus vorax Heckel, 1843 in East Hammar marsh, Southern Iraq

Falah M. Mutlak; A. R. M. Mohamed; S. A. Hussein

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 29-46

The fisheries and stock assessment of shilig Leuciscus vorax (Aspius vorax) the in East Hammar marsh, which is the first study to assess this species in southern Iraq. A total of 5751 specimens was collected by several fishing gears for a period of January in 2009 until May in 2010. Total lengths of L. vorax were ranged from 3.7 to 55.6 cm was as total length. The species constituted 6.4% from the total catch by seine net and the catch rate ranged from 0.84 kg/hr in May 2009 to 3.33 kg/hr in January 2010 and rate 2.01 kg/hr. The length-weight relationship obtained was W= 0.0068 x L3.0425. The fish stock was assessed by lengths, frequency technique using FiSAT program. Growth, mortality parameters and exploitation rate estimated were: L∞= 65.1 cm, K= 0.22, Z= 0.96, M= 0.5, F= 0.46, E= 0.48, E0.1= 0.411 and Emax= 0.52. Recruitment pattern of the species exhibited single pulse modal contributed 45% of the total recruits for the period April-September with a peak during June-August. The mature individuals of L. vorax were exposed to fishing before the spawning season in Eastern Al-Hammar marsh, because the value Lc (18.3 cm) is lower than Lm (21.5 cm). Therefore, this study suggests increasing the mesh size and regulating the fishing effort.

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