ISSN: 1812-237X

Volume 10, Issue 2

Volume 10, Issue 2, Autumn 2013, Page 87-184


larval rearing of the white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei and the first culture laboratory in Basrah, Iraq

S. S. Hassan; M. H. Ali; and S. S. Hassan; A.H. Ghazi M. H. Ali

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 87-106

In the study we cultured the shrimp P. vannamei (initial weight 0.0004 g) under laboratory conditions in marine science center and using three types of food. These were life food (Artemia nauplii), artificial died and mixed food (Artemia nauplii and artificial died). The highest average weight were achieved when feeding on the mixed feed (1.210 g), while, lower values achieved when fed on artificial diets 0.220 g. There are significant differences (P<0.05) between these three food types. A similar results were obtained for growth in terms of length, the highest average length of larvae after six weeks was achieved when fed on the mixed food (36.58 mm), comparing with these larvae fed on Artemia and artificial feed were 31.11 and 18.72 mm respectively, and there are difference significantly too (P < 0.05) between the three food types.
The highest average weight increment was recorded during the sixth week with mixed food it was 0.55 g, compared with 0.23g and 0.12 g for Artemia and artificial diets respectively.
The higher survival rates after sixth week were calculated for the three treatments, the high survival in larvae fed on Artemia it was 90.58 %, while, these fed on mixed food and artificial diet it was 85.62% and 73.24 % respectively.

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Acanthopagrus latus collected from Iraqi marine waters

G.A. Al-Najare; Abaas A. Hantoush; A.C. Al-Shammary; H. T. Al-Saad

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 107-122

Concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, cupper, iron, manganese and nickel were determined in four organs (liver, gills, ovaries and muscles) of Acanthopagrus latus, which collected from Iraqi marine waters during the period between November 2010 and October 2011. Heavy metals have been determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The fish average weight was 61.2 g and the average length was 144 mm. Nickel showed the highest values in liver, gills and muscles during spring (201.19, 190.00 and 148.00 µg/gm dry weight), respectively. While cobalt showed the lower value (1.12 µg/gm dry weights) in the liver and cadmium showed its lower value (1.23 µg/gm dry weights) in the gills during winter. Muscles showed constant levels of heavy metals, it showed the lower values (not detected) during winter. Ovaries showed high levels for all heavy metals during spring, but its value still instable during the other seasons. This study showed that the concentration of heavy metals distributed in the organs was as follows: liver > gills > muscles > ovaries, while the heavy metals concentration had been distributed during the seasons as follow: winter > spring > autumn > summer.

The life cycle of cartilaginous species: Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus، 1758) (Gymnuridae) in Syrian marine water

Malek F. ALI; Adib A. SAAD; Hasan H. ALKUSAIRY

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 123-140

This study was performed on the Gymnura altavela (Linnaeus, 1758), during the period between July 2011- June 2012, in the Syrian coast. A total of 58 examined samples (26 males and 32 females) showed that the size which female start maturation at 701 mm of disk width (DW), while the males start maturation at 682 mm. Females were always larger than males, the largest female and male were 1342 mm, 893 mm (DW), and the total weigh were (20170 g, 5071 g) respectively. G. altavela is a non-placental ovoviviparous species. The female has two ovaries, the left one is active, and the right one is atrophic. Female gestate the embryos in two uteri. Gestation could continue 9-12 months. Ovulation occurs at end of summer and at beginning of autumn, parturition occurs at end of spring and beginning of summer. One reproductive cycle occurs per year. Average of disk width and weight of fully-developed fetuses were 290 mm and 246 g. respectively. Fecundity ranges one to four newborns per litter, embryos and fetuses are symmetrically distributed in two uteruses, with increasing to left one, the ratio was 1:1.2, average of uterine fecundity was (3), average of ovarian fecundity was (6.3).

Parasitic Protozoans infecting free - living fishes of lake of 16 Tishreen Dam, Lattakia, Syria

Amal I . Dayoub; H. M. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 141-154

The study included 144 fishes in Lake of 16 Tishreen Dam for detecting the infection with parasitic Protozoans, and determine the distribution rate. Fishes were collected randomly once a month, during the period from 22/12/2011 until 22/12/2012.
Collected fishes samples were belonged to the following species: Cyprinus carpio L., Varicorhinus damascinus, Garra rufa, Tilapia zillii, and Liza abu. T. zillii was the most prevalent in the lake of 16 Tishreen Dam.
The study has shown presence of three species of parasitic Protozoans on the Skin, Fins and Gills continuously. Trichodina sp. was the most distributed one with a rate of (34.03%) then Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (15.97 %) then Chilodonella cyprini ( 2.78 %).
The infection rate of T. zillii with parasitic Protozoans was the highest 54.46 %, Trichodina sp. was 42.57 % ( in Summer 62.26 %), and C. cyprini 3.96 %,( in Summer 7.55 %) whereby the infection rate with I. multifiliis was 19.80 %( in Autumn 33.33 %).

Review of the validity of scales to estimate age, growth, life history and maturity schedule of Hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha(Hamilton, 1822)

Mustafa A. Almukhtar

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 155-169

This study reviewed the validity of using the scales of Hilsa Shad (Tenualosa ilisha) and other migratory species as a tool to estimate age, growth, maturity schedule and migration. Hilsa Shad scales were used long ago, and proved in several studies. Most of these studies showed that scales could give valuable information, which could be used as benchmarks in the study of fisheries and plans for future successful management policies. Bt it needs Patience and precision for the extraction of these information, because of difficulties in reading these scales. The work need to study the sufficient number of scales and practice, to be easily. As a result, this study will open doors that were closed for decades to set new migration study tools for Hilsa Shad in Iraq.

Environmens study for determentation the concentration and origin of Hydrocarbon in sediment cores of Al-Azim Marsh. Misan goveronate south of Iraq

H. T. Al-Saad; Abaas H. Al-Bethani; E. O. Al-Taae

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 171-184

The present study appear the concentration, source and origin of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment core of two station of Hor Al- Azim at Hor Al – Huwaiza ,total hydrocarbon measurement by spectroflurometer were in these sediment cores. Higher concentration (20.5 µg/g) dry weight at depthe (0-5) cm in Azim (I) while lower conceatrations (1.5) µg/g dry weight at depth (100-105) cm, in Al-Azim (II) higher conceantration was (17.52) µg/g at (0-5) cm depth and lower concentration (1.73) µg/g at depth (80 -85) cm .The higher percentage for total organic carbon (TOC%) appear in Al-Azim (I) (3.52)% at depth (0-5) cm while lower percentage were (0.15)% at depth (90-95) cm . In Al-Azim (II) higher percentage were (4.2)% at depth (0-5) while lower percentage (0.72)% at depth (80-85) cm and we well do to analysis grain size at the sediment were mainly muddy silt with low sand in addition to ports sheel from mollusca shell and disintegrate vegetation for both of the tow core.