ISSN: 1812-237X

Volume 8, Issue 2

Volume 8, Issue 2, Autumn 2011, Page 95-177


Catch Rate of Marine Fish species from Shatt Al-Basrah Canal , Southern Iraq

Majed M. Taher

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 95-108

Monthly fish samples were collected from one location at Shatt Al-Basrah Canal from July 2008 to June 2009, using coastal seine net of dimensions 80 m length and 8 m height with a mesh size 10×10 mm. Water temperature, salinity and water transparency were measured. Fishes were identified in the laboratory and total lengths and weights were measured. Catch per unit of effort was estimated for 22 species collected during the sampling period. The abiotic factors exhibited monthly fluctuations, especially in salinity and water temperature. The water temperatures were varied between 12 and 31.5 ْC, and the range of salinity gradient was 5.5-47.5 ppt, however the water transparency showed less variation (37.1-61 cm). Catch per unit of effort found to be zero in December, while the highest catch rate was 39.9 kg/h for Liza subviridis during July and the lowest was 0.02 kg/h for many species during several months. Basing on average as total, the highest average of catch rate was 5.89 kg/h for L. subviridis, followed by 2.96 kg/h for L. klunzingeri, while the lowest was 0.14 kg/h for Brachirus orientalis. The two mugilid species (L. subviridis and L. klunzingeri) consisted 69% of the overall catch rate and 75% of the commercial catch rate. The catch rate ofJohnius belangerii showed the highest significant positive correlation coefficient (0.72) with temperature, however highest non significant negative correlation was - 0.37 for Sillago arabica. For salinity, the results revealed that the highest significant positive correlation was 0.74 with the catch rate of J. belangerii and the highest significant negative correlation (- 0.54) with S. sihama. The correlations with water transparency showed that the highest significant positive correlation was 0.66 with Acanthopagrus latus and highest non significant negative correlation (- 0.39) with S. arabica.

Feeding habits of Chondrichthian Mustelus Mustelus - Smoothhound : Triakidae- in Syrian Marine Water

Adib Saad

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 109-124

This study was performed on the smoothhound shark :Mustelus mustelus (Linnaeus,1758(, during the period between December 2005 and April 2009, in the Eastern Levant along the Syrian coast.
A total of 222 specimens examined (143 females,79 males) discerned: The monthly sampling showed: the Smoothhound shark, M.mustelus were normally caught throughout the year, mainly in spring and summer, at fishing sites from Raas Albassit to Tartus city ( 34º. 40΄and 35º.80΄ N, 35º.70΄and 36º.05΄ E) of the Syrian coast, from shallow water to depth 250 m .
The coefficient of void of total specimens stomachs was high (C.V=61.7%), values were almost equal between males and females, the higher value recorded for adult females (C.V =62.5%).
The prey items belong to three collections: ( Bony fish, Crustaceans, and Mollusks), bony fish occupy the first position for: Coefficient of feeding (Q=1560.4), Frequency of prey index (91.8%), Gravimetric percentage of prey index (C.P=38.6%).
Crustaceans came in the first position for Numerical Percentage of Prey Index (C.N=45.6%).

A study on the histological changes in infected gold fish(Carrassius auratus auratus ) by the parasitic fungus Saprolegnia parasitica in vitro

Tawfek M. Muhsin; Abdul-Hafiz Al- Duboon; Sanaa Q.. Bader

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 125-136

The ornamental fish, Carrassius auratus auratus was artificially infected by the water mold Saprolegnia parasitica. The infected fishes were left in aquariums without treatment until they died for purpose of histological study. Skin and muscle tissues sections have been prepared and stained by PAS. The results showed clear tissue changes represented by erosion and necrosis of the skin epidermis and muscles.

Species composition of fishes assemblage in shatt Al-Basrah canal, South of Iraq

K. H. Younis

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 137-156

The fish assemblage structure in Shatt AL-Basrah canal was described during the period June 2008–June 2009. Two stations were chosen, the first at the upper reaches of the Canal south to the regulation Dam and the second station located near AL-Zubair Bridge. We collected 51 species belonging to Osteichthyes and two species to Chondrichthyes.The number of species collected was 38 species in both stations. The total number of individuals collected was 8216 in the first station and 2969 fish in the second station.
The Similarity index in the species composition of the fish assemblage was 49% between the two stations. Diversity (H), Evenness (J) and Richness (D) of the fish assemble was respectively 2.57, 0.71, 4.63 in the first station .while at the second station was lower 2.06, 0.57, 4, 10 respectively.

Suggested methods for enhancement of aquaculture in the Southern Marshes of Iraq

Nadir A. Salman

Iraqi Journal of Aquaculture, Volume 8, Issue 2, Pages 157-177

Aquaculture activities in the southern part of Iraq faced many problems. Local people are not well aware that aquaculture could be a good activity to improve their socioeconomic status. There are very few hatcheries to supply enough fingerlings. The water quality is changing and becoming more saline, which have negative impact on the growth rate of the cultured freshwater species. To improve aquaculture in the southern part of Iraq, all these parameters should be considered to plan an effective management. Making use of the naturally-occurred water impoundments in the southern marshes and turning them into productive fish ponds is a practical approach. The present study suggests various rearing techniques which are suitable for such water bodies. These include introduction of peripheral and transaction dikes to create extensive fish ponds. Fish cages and net enclosures represent also a special profitable approaches. Rearing fish in fish rice fields can also be practiced in certain areas in the marshlands. Conducting steps, implementation techniques and advantages of various rearing methods have been discussed. Fry and fingerlings supply should be maintained through establishing local hatcheries, which produce fingerlings of all carp species (common, grass and silver carp) in addition to some native species such as Bunni (B. sharpey). Aquaculture activities in the marshes should include releasing fingerlings into the available open waters using big net enclosures. Few other developmental recommendations were also suggested, such as the introduction of new fish species that are more tolerable to the present water quality. The introduction of new types of culture methods such as cages and recirculation systems which are compatible with the freshwater shortage, quality and depths. There are big chances of success especially with the availability of sufficient amount of very productive water and cheap work power, but research for optimizing stocking and harvesting is essential.